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Thesis Proposal : Sample work

Sample 1:
Title


To analyze how a change in customer perception towards health and wellness influences product design in the sports and fitness industry.



Section 1: Topic, Research Questions, Aim, and Objectives

Question 1: Title and Research questions

TITLE

To analyze how a change in customer perception towards health and wellness influences product design in the sports and fitness industry.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • 1 What is the importance of customer perception in the development of products and services for an organization?
  • 2 What is the customer’s perception of health and wellbeing in the UAE region?
  • 3 How does customer perception impact the design of products and services of the sports and fitness industry?
  • 4 How much reality is in that the sport and fitness industry flow customer perception?
  • 5 Within the UEA, have people become more aware of their health, and what is the role of fitness industries?

Question 2: Aim and Objectives

AIM

The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of customer perception of health and wellbeing and its impact on the product and service design in the fitness and sports industry.

Objectives

1

To analyze the importance of customer perception in the development of products and services.

2

To investigate the customer's perception of health and wellbeing in the UAE region

3

To examine the extent to which customer perception has an impact on the design and service of the sports and fitness industry.

4

To know is it really fitness and support industries pay attention to customer’s perception.

5

To find out, Marketing and product service strategy in relation to customer’s perception

Question 3: Rationale of topic for MBA Dissertation.

In the UAE, people concern about their fitness and they consider the sports and fitness industry an essential part of their life. Global Cigna 360 latest report of Wellbeing survey once again has announced the UAE's second consecutive year in fitness and wellbeing. This is how, why we should analyze the change in customer perception towards better health and wellness influences product design in the sports and fitness industry. Considering the level of concern, the people have become aware of different aspects of wellbeing and health. Many people have proper knowledge about the sports and fitness products that they want to ensure a better and healthier life. Therefore, (Arabian Business, 2018).

The activity of being fit is increasing day by day in UAE, because today in the modern era, being fit means you must exercise on some extraordinary machinery. So, it has a significant impact on the design of the services and products. This requires the organizations that are working in the sports and fitness industry to become more aware of the changing needs of the customers and to investigate which product and service they require. Therefore, the sports and fitness organizations are required to conduct an in-depth investigation of the expectations of the customers, their subjective norms, their perceptions, their attitude, and perceived behaviour when making a decision for the purchase of sports and fitness products and services (Zhang & Li, 2014).

Customer perception, in general, plays a central role in product development and marketing professionals. Customer perception changes with the passage of time and is affected by several factors including the pricing, service quality, customer service, and the utility that the product is providing to the customer. Furthermore, impacted by the value and ethics of the product and the reputation of the product in the market. However, with the increase in information flow, the knowledge of the customers regarding different products have improved (Canhoto, & Arp, 2017).

The customers have become more knowledgeable about their needs, which have resulted in altering the specifications of the products and services that are being offered in the market. These generic products and services can be made unique by adding the value of the extra features such as performance or quality enhancement, So the final version of the product in this context includes the augmented properties that offer the customer with more tangible benefits and that best meet the customers’ needs and customers’ requirements (Nam & Lee, 2017). In every industry, the perception of the customer changes with time, and with increased awareness and knowledge, the perception and demand for the product and services vary significantly. The same is the case with the UAE sports and fitness industry. IN the UAE, the desire of the customers has changed with related means of health and well-being. Within the UAE, the perception of the customers has changed greatly with respect to the concept of health and wellbeing. People have become more conscious about their health and able to Know to improve quality Health. Sports and fitness are not only essential as the source of physical wellbeing, but it is also essential as a source of psychological wellbeing. (Lagrosen & Lagrosen, 2007).

So, from above all justification, it has become very essential to analyze the customer perception about fitness and wellbeing, and the impact of customer perception on the sports industry. The already literature is very limited which we found on the influence of customer perception of health and wellbeing and its impact on product design and service. Same in the case within UEA, also, very limited literature is available in the UAE region concerning the impact of customer perception on the product and service design of the sports and fitness industry. Considering the limitation of the research work on this area, it was necessary to investigate the said topic. This study can add value to the already available literature and might help to understand the perception of the customer about fitness and wellness.

Consequently, it will help to understand marketing and product service strategy in relation to customer’s perception, so this dissertation would be proved important for MBA. In this era of customer targeted market, the research on consumer behaviours has immense importance. It helps in understanding the behaviour of users and to arrange the focus as per the research to enhance profitability. The dissertation can aid the sports industries as well the sporting event organizers to target specific behaviour of customers leading to presenting the research more useful and effective.

Section 2: Literature Review

Question 4: Key authors in the topic research

Following are key authors within the research topic area:

  • ● Almenhali, Ali Abdulqader Abdulrahman.
  • ● Avourdiadou & Theodorakis
  • ● Aimee Gericke
  • ● Ana Isabel Canhoto and Sabrina Arp
  • ● Hamza Salim Khraim
  • ● Jerónimo García-Fernándeza, Pablo Gálvez-Ruízb, Jesús Fernández-GaviraaLuisa Vélez-Colónc, Brenda Pitts, Ainara Bernal-García
  • ● SevastiaAvourdiadou and Nicholas D. Theodorakisb

Question 5: Key arguments from the literature review

Discussion and Arguments

Customer perception plays a significant role in designing any product or service. It helps in tailoring the product design and manufacture to their needs. As customers is the focus of a business. Customers also have become much conscious about their need for the products and services that they need to keep themselves active and healthy. The change in the perception of the customer regarding wellness and health has been changing over time. This has caused the change in the product and service requirements amongst the customers. Avourdiadou and Theodorakis (2014) discussed, customer’s perception is like the lifeblood for any organization. The customer is the boss and meeting their needs and demands is the prime responsibility of any organization. Designing products and services as per the needs of the customers is the prime priority of every organization (Avourdiadou & Theodorakis, 2014) Nam and Lee said customer perception in the current century has been predicted to overtake the precedence over the traditional competitive advantage features of the market such as usability, feature, and pricing. Therefore, for the companies, it has become necessary to take into consideration the customer perception and their related experiences. Ignoring customer’s perceptions might bring the company to the risk of failing in the market (Nam & Lee, 2017).

Service strategy and the customer perception

García-Fernández et al., (2018) researched about the relationship between service strategy and customer perception. The researchers concluded that all services which a company offers to their consumer are designed generally according to the need and demand of the customers. In a number of cases, it has been observed that the product and service development strategy usually depends upon two main goals which includes keeping the product line and the new product and service in line with the overall objective of the organization and its marketing philosophy. It also depends upon establishing such a system that can evaluate the performance of the product. The evaluation of a successful product depends upon several factors which includes customer response, market acceptance, sales, profit, and the current competition of product in the market (García-Fernández, et al., 2018). Nam and Lee (2017) shed light on the aspects of the progress of product and service. They argued that itdepends on such criteria that helps in putting together a strategy which can help in determining whether a product needs to be discontinued, continued, or modified. The development analysis, therefore, should include the guidelines for the services and the products that are likely to be introduced in the market (Nam & Lee, 2017). The research in the respective topic as per the marketing standards allows the researchers, statisticians, scholars, and companies to improve the strategies. The maintenance of customers costs more than the attraction and acquisition of the new customers.

Customer's perception of health and wellbeing

Customer's perception of health and wellbeing in the UAE region Vremy-Miller ( 2017) said, in the UAE region, it has been noticed a growing interest amongst the UAE residents to send a healthy and more active lifestyle that can offer a better quality of life to the customers. This made the demand for personal training sessions, gym memberships, and such other sports and fitness services. In the UAE region, factors such as moreawareness about livinga healthy life, perfect look, and being active have also contributed towards an increase in the social media content related to fitness and health. Therefore, people in the UAE region are showing much interest to seek the help of the experts and the professionals (vRemy-Miller, 2017).

According to Gericke (2019), fitness and sports are the innovative and challenging times for the health and fitness industry as the people in that era are very clear about the advantage of leading a healthy lifestyle. Peopleare generally making good decisions when it comes to the question of health as food consumption, selecting a sports activity, or selecting a product and service that can help them to remain active and fit (Gericke, 2019). Khaleej times said in the past five years, TV and social media have increased the content based on fitness and wellbeing in more quantity for promoting the concept of proper nutrition and training. Therefore, people are much excited to follow the path of the experts whom they like the most. Almenhali (2019) said in his one module that the continuous demand in fitness and wellbeing centers have outdated the one sizefits all approach of the gyms that were designed on the traditional products and service models. Therefore, for the sports and fitness industry of UAE, it has become increasingly necessary to design their products and services on one pillar that is customer's perceptions (Almenhali, 2019)

Factors affecting customer perception

Enough research has been conducted in this sector which highlights different factors affecting customer’s choices. These factors encompass social, economic, personal, and environmental factors. Khraim (2018) discusses the effect of these factors on the customer’s behaviors leading to an effect on the sports industry. Customer perception, in general, plays a central role in product development and marketing professionals. Customer Perception changes with the passage of time and is affected by several factors, i.e. including the pricing, service quality, customer service, and the utility that the product is providing to the customer(Khraim, 2018).Furthermore, impacted by the value and ethics of the product and the reputation of the product in the market. However, with the increase in information flow, the knowledge of the customers regarding different products have improved. Therefore, the effect of marketing on the perception of customers regarding the purchase of goods surpasses the factors affecting their choices. Reference groups, friends, and family impact the choice of purchase of an individual to a great extent(Anderson,Narus, and Van Rossum, 2006).

The brand-image impacts the choice of a person regardless of the item. In sports and fitness industry, the brand image hikes as the quality of the products changes a lot with the price. Here the debate of quality vs price comes in. The counterfeit products are not allowed, and the sellers are charged for the sale of fake products. However, the market of counterfeit products does not fail. According to a recent survey, more than 25 million counterfeit products are seized by the authorities annually in the UAE. The quality of products matters to consumers. The impact of buying a counterfeit sport product is negative towards the sports industry.Khraim (2018) conducted a quantitative survey-based study with a focus on the effect of status, process. Reference groups and consumption on user’s behaviour while purchasing counterfeit sports products. Researcher focused on two of the most famous sports retailers in the UAE, Rebook and GO Sports. After a detailed descriptive and statistical analysis, it was concluded that reference groups and price influence the attitude of consumers while buying fake sportsproducts in the UAE. The consumption status was found to be insignificant. The rise of counterfeit products in the sports industry creates a bad image and a sense of disloyalty among consumers (Khraim, 2018).

The art of identifying different environmental and individualistic factors greatly influence the success of marketing in sports industry. Despite limited control over these factors, researchers have tried to model the effect of certain factors on consumer’s behaviour which ultimately affect their purchasing choices within the sports industry. A survey-descriptive research by Abdolmaleki,Mirzazadeh,and Alidoust Ghahfarokhhi (2016) presented a socio-cultural model in sports consumer behaviour. Based on almost 400 people, the model concluded that “social class with the relative weight of 0.391 is the most important component”. The model consisted of evaluating the effect of social factors, which encompass, social class, idea leaders, family, and references group. The social factors seem to be the most important driving factor in the influencing consumer behaviour in the sports industry (Abdolmaleki, Mirzazadeh, and Alidoust Ghahfarokhhi, 2016).

Demographics and Consumer Behaviors

The living style of the UAE residents is luxurious. The lifestyle defines the preferences of the consumers. The high-end brands are essential for the maintenance of the image of living. Therefore, it affects the purchasing behavior in the sports industry. Women influence more than 70 percent of the purchase in Dubai while the purchase of sports products by women is minimal. Diversity is considered to be a good thing, but it can be a challenge for this supermarket chain. The people in UAE come from different continents. There are some that are from Asia while there are also some that are from Europe. The sports industry makes the effort to import various products from all over the world in order to meet the demands of their very diverse customers (Anderson,Narus, and Van Rossum, 2006).

A customer’s natural origin may greatly affect the type of products that he/she would like to see in the market. Residents of the region prefer international brands over the national brands of any products including the sports products. However, some of the national brands such as Emirates merchandise have been among the top suppliers of the sports products in the region as well as globally (O’Connell, 2011). The rise of the sports goods has increased with the rise of the popularity of the cricket and football. These factors impact consumer’s attitude towards the sports industry. Consumers and audience of sports industry is directly linked with the factors affecting the choices of customer, the understanding of nature of consumer behavior and their decision. In addition to the social, lifestyle and demographics, the impact of psychological attitude where the audience’s activities matter (Anderson,Narus, and Van Rossum, 2006).

Impact on the Sports and Fitness Industry

Anderson (2019) argued that customer perceptions have changed and with the increased interest of the customers towards sports and fitness, the UAE fitness and sports market outlook has also changed. This increase in the market has opened many opportunities for the people in the market. Within the UAE region, many organized fitness service centrifuges are expected to increase. As per the estimate, such outlets are expected to grow from 1400 outlets to 2022 due to the penetration of the existing sports and fitness players such as Gold Gyms, Fitness First, and Lifeline wellness (Anderson, 2019). According to Anderson (2019), It is experienced that the industry of fitness and sports are not able to sell easily the product and services which are easy for them to design or in which they don't consider customer Perception. The old players in the market, keeping into consideration the current surge in the needs and demands of the customers are further penetrating into the areas such as meditations, salons, massages, and wellness centers (Anderson, 2019).

According to Almenhali (2019), the sports industry is also learning and increasing in fitness special classes in the next upcoming two years. For example, demand for Pilates and Zumba, martial arts, and cross-fit have also increased and are expected to experience a further rise in the next coming years. Same as the fitness industry overall, the UEA region is also getting the gist and increasing numbers of exercise classes for people of different ages, both males and females. In this surge in the demands and needs of the customers, the new and old market players are increasingly experiencing the challenge to meet the changing customer needs especially in the environment where the customers have a growing number of health and fitness options. This trend of increasing new entrants in the business is making the shift away from the gyms and techniques that were traditionally in practice. In the meantime, the industries are in need to provide the product and service keeping in mind the desire of customers, their needs, perceptions, and customers’ expectations (Al Menhali, 2019).

References

Abdolmaleki, H., Mirzazadeh, Z. and Alidoust Ghahfarokhhi, E., 2016. The role played by socio-cultural factors in sports consumer behavior. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 4(3), pp.17-25.

Al Menhali, A.A.A., 2019. Embedding sustainable strategies for competitive advantage in the UAE sports sector.

Avourdiadou, S., and Theodorakis, N.D., 2014. The development of loyalty among novice and experienced customers of sport and fitness centers. Sport Management Review, 17(4), pp.419-431.

Anderson, J.C., Narus, J.A. and Van Rossum, W., 2006. Customer value propositions in business markets. Harvard business review, 84(3), p.90.

Canhoto, A. & Arp, S., 2017. Exploring the factors that support adoption and sustained use of health and fitness wearables. Journal of Marketing Management, 33(1-2), pp. 32-60.

García-Fernández, J., Gálvez-Ruíz, P., Fernández-Gavira, J., Vélez-Colón, L., Pitts, B. and Bernal-García, A., 2018. The effects of service convenience and perceived quality on perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty in low-cost fitness centres. Sport Management Review, 21(3), pp.250-262.

Gericke, A., 2019. Sports sponsorship as a community engagement tool: Spinneys Dubai 92 Cycle Challenge (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).

Khraim, H.S., 2018. The Influence of Price, Status Consumption, and Reference Groups on Consumer Attitude to Purchase Counterfeit Sports Products in UAE. Irish Business Journal, 11(1), p.1.

Lagrosen, S., and Lagrosen, Y., 2007. Exploring service quality in the health and fitness industry. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal.

Nam, C., Dong, H., and Lee, Y.A., 2017. Factors influencing consumers’ purchase intention of green sportswear. Fashion and Textiles, 4(1), p.2.

O’Connell, J.F., 2011. The rise of the Arabian Gulf carriers: An insight into the business model of Emirates Airline. Journal of Air Transport Management, 17(6), pp.339-346.























Sample 2:
Title


Criminal as a hero: "How Netflix is showing criminals as heroes?

Introduction 
 Nowadays, criminal justice is a popular theme not only in news media but also in entertainment media such as Netflix. Netflix media understand this societal fascination with violence and murder. They exploit this obsession through excessive coverage of murder and murderers. Through this coverage, people get to know these killers and become familiar with their lives and ways of thinking. Serial killers not only become stars but to some people, they become kind of heroes. Most serial killers start their lives as unknowns, but through their crimes, they become superstars, known throughout the country. Such as we see in the Netflix series of "Dexter and 13 reason why" On the other side, it is proven that media shape people's understanding of their world and societal values. So, this is how crime and justice issues are framed and can legitimize corruption in a society.

Questions based on previous background information  :

1.What should be the ultimate definition of a hero?
2.How can we define criminal?
3.What is the role of the media?
4.What is the impact of media on today's society?
5.What is the ideology of the media?
6.Why media present the criminal as the hero?
7.Is it okay to do the wrong action with the right motive?
8.Influence of media on society?
9.What are media criminalities and potentially distorted social construction of crime?

Working thesis:

The role of media in misrepresenting the definition of heroes is critical, as we see on the Netflix killers serial. They present some monstrous characters in their series, which badly impact the psychological condition of the people; they start idealizing the feeling which they should not have to. Further, it has becomes the reason for disarray in the society and even has changed the definition of the bad and good.
So, I argue if the media messages influences the society, then there is a need to understand how and why these messages are constructed, what type of psychological roles these messages play in our society. Here needs to investigate and supervise every series and serial on Netflix effectively. This thesis will examine how Netflix creates notions of reality and what are the messages they want to give us through the killer’s serial such as Dexter and 13 reasons why?

Background knowledge:

Today, everyone is curious to know about the hidden role of the media, the same I have also curiosity about the ideology of the media. I want to know how they brainwash the mind of the people and lead their ideology. According to Kam keelson reports, not only teens, and children but even adults are being impacted by the "Netflix Effect." People idealized the person who had idealized in the different series of Netflix. It is figured out that the Netflix coverage fuels serial killers to continue killing.
The reason is a desire for fame and desire to become a story. Serial killers find the chances to be their stories known, and they know that the mass media is the best outlet to use to achieve these goals. Some killers even send letters to the media to the public their stories through them, it is amazing to know that In the case of Jack the Ripper, reported by Seltzer, "They received a series of more than 300 letters mailed to the London press, those were unauthorized and unknown signed Jack the Ripper.
Significance:

It is imperative to know about the agenda of every type of media so that a common man could not impress by the motive present in the media openly. I believe that after this research, I will learn why entertainment media such as Netflix represent the killers and criminals as heroes. The outcomes and reasons will give new to the critical reader, my classmates, and instructor.
Methodology:

A.Keywords research: Keywords for my study will be the following: Media impact, criminals as heroes, Netflix impact, dexter, mind hunter, 13 reason why, society.
B.Library Research: In research methodology, I will use a mixed approach in my study. I will look at some books in the library that talk about the role of media study and the ideology of the media study. Also, I will have a look at some books that talk about how media influence the way of thinking, how media is forming the culture and changing the norms as I have chosen the topic of media presenting the criminal as heroes. Further, I will use the E- databases on the library to search about these keywords and have ma ore deeper sight of this topic.
C.Internet Research: I will utilize the internet as a source of my study by searching the keywords and getting all the previous research articles published on my topic. The website googlescholar.com will be the leading site I will use to search for my information. Also, I will look at some other non-academic websites to see the general perspectives on how media is presenting the criminal as heroes.
D.Field Research: I will conduct interviews with the user of Netflix to know their perception about the aggressive aspect of how wrong they are portraying the hero's picture. Furthermore, I will use questionnaires as a technique of gathering information from both the lover and haters of Netflix media.


























Sample 3:
Title

Analysis of Factors and Causes of Failure in XYZ Projects
Research Proposal


Table of Contents

Introduction 4
Literature Review (Background of the research) 4
Research Aims/Objectives 4
Research Methodology (Philosophy, approach etc.) 4
Sampling (Population profile, sampling theories and sampling size) 4
Accessibility 4
Ethical Issues 4
Significance 4
Deliverables 4
Required Resources 4
Implementation Timetable (Gantt-like chart) 4
Evaluation of The Individual Research Plan 4

List of Numbered Tables, Graphs and Figures
Figure 1: Project Management 5


Summary of Abbreviations

Introduction
Project management is the application of skills, knowledge, tools, and techniques to the activities of the project in order to meet the requirements of the project. PMBOK Guide defines project management as the integration and application of all the concepts required to complete a project. A project is covered in four different stages encompassing initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, and controlling, and closing (Gray et al., 2008).
To handle a project is not feasible all the time. Most of the projects are produced, and only part of them get flourished. This thing happened because of multiple reasons depending on the complication and convolution of the project; it may face more or less failure possibility. Sometimes projects are led to delivered but not in a given schedule because of exceptionally exceed the given budget or with specific attributes that are not mostly respected. A well-managed and successful project has many key attributes. First, to understand the importance of project management, it is essential to know the fundamental nature of the project; the primary attributes of successful project management process; how to evaluate the success, the key roles, activities, and responsibilities of project manager and the efforts required to perform the tasks; and the surrounding where projects are being performed (Conboy, 2010).
These procedures handle the inputs to deliver outputs from specific activities; the core of project management depends on the continuation of inputs to outputs, and it needs repetition and integration. For example, a viability report could be the input to sketch episode; and the output of a sketch episode could be a set of intentions and specifications. This continuation needs project management efforts, competitiveness, expertise, techniques including change control, incident development, and risk management.

Figure 1: Project Management
This research proposal focuses on the details of the research project. It starts with the introduction of the project management and the subject of the research of the paper. The proposal analyses the literature on the subject and reviews the concepts proposed by other researchers. The research proposal continues with the description of the research methodology covering the philosophy and approach. It also describes the sampling techniques along with the ethical issues involved in the study. The research proposal presents significance of the research objectives and implementation timetable. The research proposal concludes with the evaluation of the plan.

Literature Review
Any project or organization can experience project failure. It can occur due to an unlimited number of reasons. Most of the time failure is beyond the control of project manager and team members. However, failure can be managed in some cases. There are always some common factors between failed projects and people who fail them. In any case, generally quick solutions are advised to resolve failure into some success. However, it can also result is disastrous side effects. Many authors collaborated and did a survey that involved people from all over the world, working at project manager levels. The survey asked questions by using multiple key performance factors (Reich and Wee, 2006). Mostly, it involved everything related to project failure. As a result, 43% of people confirmed lack of proper communication is the leading cause of failure, 42% thought project processing failure lead to failure, and 32% described incompetent workers are the cause of failure. When results if the above survey was compared to another survey on the web managed by Computer Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) that involved more than 1000 persons, 28% confirmed poor communication as the leading cause of failure in any project. Plus, 18% described poor resource management as the most significant cause of failure in any project (Brown, 2007). As the research is focused on the identification and assessment of the project failures, different reasons for the failure of the project
Vision and goal
Every project has a clear-cut vision that in written form somewhere. However, persons rarely use it for solid guidelines when it comes to strategic decision goal (Stoica, and Brouse (2013) explained that without understanding why, the project needs to deliver results that are desired for the goals of an organization. It means total failure towards the end goal. The absence of coordination between simultaneously running projects leads to the internal conflict of interest within the organization (Stoica, and Brouse, 2013).
Governance and leadership
The failure to build a governance structure that is right for the requirement of the project. It is a classic mistake. The researchers concluded that getting a sponsor who does not own the project entirely and consider everything is the responsibility of the project manager in order to achieve success. The failure to oversee the project at the right levels. For example, too much micro-management puts down the morale of the team, along with destroying focus on the purpose (Kokko, Kotoglou, and Krohwinkel-Karlsson, 2003).
Stakeholder engagement issues
Stakeholders are all the persons involved in the project. It includes customers, investors, project managers and controllers. The failure of the project can be the result of the failure to inform the stakeholder on the project properly in all issues. It can also be due to the failure to consider the narrative of stakeholders and compromising the interest of stakeholders in each step. Taking decisions and solutions without authorization from all stakeholders. It ensures giving permission to one group of stakeholders to take over the project and neglecting interests of the minor stakeholders. Failure to apply and implement change management, along with inappropriate transitioning of stakeholders between old methods and new ways due to the need for the project. Researchers have discussed that failure to communicate effectively with every person involved in the project, whether individuals or groups(Horn, Schiele, and Werner, 2013).

Team issues
There can be issues within the team as well which can lead to failure of the project. Many researchers have explained that lack of expertise on the subject matter of the project. Other factors include failure to train the team properly and effectively, absence of feedback process, failure to implement the dynamics of the project by the project manager, demotivating the team with specific activities and overburdening team with tasks simultaneously.
Estimation
In project management, estimation is crucial. Wrong estimation of workers and neglecting productive team members.Over shining the project by arbitrarily cutting estimates in order to look impressive. Estimating big tickets and neglecting smaller activities because of visibility. It has been observed that estimating without proper data from previous projects and failure to establish a plan to cover unknown factors. Sometimes making assumptions about new tools or systems that it will suddenly improve the overall performance.
Planning
In several projects, failure to think properly in planning that leads to defected execution and not considering all complexities of the project. Executing work under unnecessary pressure due to incompetency. Welsh (2000) concluded that making assumptions about productive performance and neglecting non-productive time. Failure to know the customer’s expectations can also lead to failure of the project. Considering project managers has the sole responsibility for planning and failure to convert the master plan into small manageable tasks can cause the projects to fail. In addition to all this, failure to consider cultural change activities as a component of the project, failure to ensure user training and putting the product into the market environment and failure to allocate proper training time in the plan can also cause problems in project management. Moreover, handling change requests without considering the budget and schedule overrun the project (Welsh, 2001).

Risk management
Risk management is crucial. It protects from many problems. Failure to understand and forecast potential problems.Considering risk management separately from the project and not considering it as the component of the project.Confusing risk, problems, and issues in the project and neglecting risk management as a team effort can cause project failure.
Configuration and information management
Failure to administrate all versions of a document and confusing problems that impact the project’s progress.Failure to deploy the right tools in information handling and leaving important information behind (Welsh, 2001).
Quality
In more than half of the project failure case studies, failure to discuss and finalize quality requirements and allowing people to standardize different requirements at the same time causes failure of project. Failure to accumulate project’s performance indicators, such as reviews, tests, and checkpoints. So, these can verify the quality.
Reviewing documents and design material with just grammar and spellings, and neglecting the quality of the subject matter.Considering quality as a matter of testing and compromising working culture.Researchers discussed that evaluating the product with inappropriate tests under a totally different environment that is not the right operational environment(Elmquist, and Le Masson, 2009).

Project tracking and management
Considering budget and schedule as the main driver of the project, along with compromise on quality in order to get immediate results, whether it justifies the effort of not.Evaluating and tracking the project with large and visible deliverables and ignoring the process of small increments.Failure to judge and administrate small vendors and sub-contractors on a daily basis.Lauermann (2016) described that assuming that team has delivered all things for the project and neglecting revisions and assuming that a worker will remember all the intricate details and perform as directed before the project. It leads to mismanagement because workers forget often
Decision-making problems
Lauermann (2016) concluded that allowing inexperienced people who do not have subject matter expertise to take important and critical decisions.Ignoring or soliciting expert’s advice while making key decisions for the project.Not understanding the situation while making key decisions.Failure to act for a longer period of time and do not perform closure to critical decisions in a regular manner(Lauermann, 2016).

Research Aims/Objectives
The research study focuses on two different case studies. The aim of the research study is to:
Analyze the effectiveness of the factors on the success of the project
Evaluate the different factors leading to the failure of the project
Research methodology
The contextual analysis research, from the past reports investigations, allows the investigation and understanding of the major issues. It very well may be looked like a powerful technique to research most probably when an all-encompassing examination from top to bottom is need of hour. In most of the sociologies examines, it is perceived as a device. When there are issues with respect to instruction then the job of contextual analysis technique in research turns out to be more evident. There are different research methodologies that contribute to the data collection as per the research objectives in a study. The main types of research methodologies are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed research methodology. In qualitative research methodology, the focus is on the analysis of the non-numerical data. Many methods are used to collect data in qualitative research methodology such as interviews, observations, case study and focus groups. On the other hand, quantitative research methodology focuses on the collection and analysis of the numerical data. It involves data collection via polls, surveys, questionnaire, or experiments. The third type of research methodology is the mixed. It involves combination of both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.
The choice of the research methodology depends on the nature of the research study and the type of the intended results. The current research study utilizes case study as the methodology of choice. Researchers can choose one individual case, or they can receive numerous case studies based upon the problems being consulted to. Where there are not many different issues accessible for replication then the single-case structure could be embraced by researchers. In this research study, the multiple-case study will be selected. The objective is determination of the factors causing failure of the project, it is essential to gain different perspective.
Two different case studies are chosen for the research paper. The first case is the project failure of British petroleum. In the present ever-changing and dynamic situation, it is important to acquire and execute the latest strategies to essentially survive in a rapidly changing environment. In this scenario, we look and examine the circumstances of British Petroleum (BP) Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico located in the United States of America. This Oil Spill shows a situation which not only censorious but also innovatory for any oil company in the globe. In the present era, this accident of deep Oil Spill was one of the worst and great disaster ever fetch. In such kind of situation, each company should have to take exceptional, wise, and extremely powerful strategic management decisions and the techniques that how to execute those plans (Kerzner, 2014).
In 1909 the British Petroleum founded as the Anglo-Persian oil and gas company in London England, United Kingdom. It ranked in the sixth position as the largest oil and gas company and the fifth position as the largest company by annual revenue. The major field operation of this company is exploration, production, refining, distribution, and retailing of the hydrocarbon material. BP operates in more than 80 countries across the globe having 80,000 plus employees. The largest division of this company operating in America known as BP America and it is the second-largest oil and gas production company in the United States. It has around 22400 service terminals which selling about 5.9 million barrels each day. It considered as one of the top-notch oil and gas company which heavily invested in the formulation and execution of the latest exploration technology to invent petrochemical present under the earth surface. The other case study is based on the Fiat Chrysler Automobiles’ failed project (Roger et al., 2004). In this, the classic example of failure of project happened. “Companies face numerous situations during the process of change which leads to anxiety and ambiguity. In order to become a prosperous organization, it is imperative for the companies to incorporate upgraded technologies for producing goods, innovative products to be introduced which are anticipated by the market, modern methods of administration must be executed along with improvement in the expertise of the workers” (Abbasi, et al., 2014).

Research Philosophy
A research philosophy is a view as the manner through which background history about a questionis collected, analyzed, and implemented. The epistemology term (what is considered to be valid) in place of song (what is thought to be valid) includes the different ways of thinking of approach which is used in research. At that point ,the reason for science is the way of changing one’s thought and perspective toward the things that are already known such as doxa to episteme. The main two significant research ways of reasoning have been distinguished to be specific positivist (here and there called logical) and interpretivist (otherwise called ant positivist in the Western convention of science.
Sampling (Population profile, sampling theories and sampling size)
Research studies are subjective in nature and does not buy in to the quantitative shows of sampling. It is called purposive sampling, where the sources are picked for having the option to give information that are generally important. Contextual investigation includes close assessment of information inside an exact setting. Normally, a contextual analysis chooses a limited number of masses as the subjects of study with point by point logical investigation of the information gathered on this number and their connections. In this research study, random sampling is done with a few inclusion criteria points. This inclusion criteria includes the existence of a project, failure of the project and valuable lessons learned. The chosen case studies belong to famous companies and had huge impact. This increases the significance of the study.

Ethical Issues
Ethical considerations plays a significant role in each research strategy which includes human subjects however they take on involvement of centrality in a event that concentrates research where researchers work intimately on daily basis with research members over some not defined time frame and as often as possible in the personal mode and up close (where the bond between the researcher-member is considered as most important point in the research consequences). In case study research, there is assembling of a lot of profoundly point by point information on every case, for example, an account request may bring about long; or, a contextual analysis may collect a nitty gritty record of a particular social program; or, individual stories related with an incessant sickness. The chance of incidentally disclosing the personalities and character of the members (without their consent) runs high except if safety measures are taken under considerations in such sorts of studies.

Significance
The significance of reliable and effective project planning is undeniable. It is essential to pay special attention to the causes of failure in project management. The need for the identification and assessment of the causes of failure of a project gives an insight into the world of project management. The need for a deep understanding of the factors of successful projects is essential. However, in order to avoid mistakes, it is crucial to go for lessons learned. Every project in the project management domain focuses on lessons learned. Failed projects have more to offer as compared to successful projects in terms of learned lessons. Therefore, this research study is significant. Because it allows an in-depth analysis of two different failed projects. It will highlight the causes and solutions for future project managers and researchers. The research study will have theoretical as well as practical implications.
Deliverables
Deliverables are the activities or tasks which are assigned by the project manager. These tasks should be completed within a given amount of time (Woodford, Chow, and Lambe, 2014). Each deliverable marks a milestone. In a research project like this, the first deliverable can be the submission of the research proposal. After submission and approval of the research proposal, the next deliverable is the submission of the literature review and methodology. After the submission of the literature review and proposed methodology analysis will be started after the collection of data, the deliverable will be chapter 4, which will comprise of the results of the research paper. The last deliverable will be the complete research paper as per the requirements. It is essential to keep the task within the provided time and cost limits.

Required Resources
Research resources are generally thought of two types which include primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources, which are mostly composed by an onlooker or unique abstract or imaginative works, can be firsthand records of specific occasions. They might be unanalyzed measurable information, letters, official records, interviews, or review results. These resources comprise data and information which is yet not purified, the first showstopper or quick impressions. Primary data resources are easily available. They are clear and coherent (Rabianski, 2003). However, Secondary resources, usually are amalgamations, investigations, conversations, and assessments of the data which is driven by primary-and secondary means. In the case study research methodology, there is the use of information from both the primary and secondary resources. It will focus on the information from the company’s websites as well as from the analysis of different researchers in literature. All through scholastic vocation, researcher do not uncertainty use both primary as well as secondary sources. When both the resources are used together, it is merely because of the need for the research study (Hox, and Boeije, 2005). The use of respective resources can provide sufficient information on the research subject. The main sources of information in the current case are the company websites and official analysis of the projects. It will also include the resources from the literature review.
Implementation Timetable (Gantt-like chart)
Gantt chart allows the visualization of the list of activities and the respective timeline (Maylor, 2001). The following Gantt chart depicts the completion of the research paper within ten weeks after the approval of the research proposal. The tasks are listed in the left column, while the time required for each activity is colored in the other sections.
Task/Weeks
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Preparation of literature review










Analysis of the case study and data collection










Data alignment and analysis










Data analysis and write-up










Results and conclusion










Compilation of the research paper










Submission of the paper












Evaluation of The Individual Research Plan

Team Issues

Experts feel that there is lack of proper knowledge in this team issue. Most team leads and managers aren’t aware on how to train their team properly and in an effective manner. Also, the major drawback is the lack of feedback process that hampers the team interaction.
Most of the managers never think of employing the dynamics of project and some even indulge in demotivating their team members for certain jobs they do rather than encouraging them. Plus some of the managers and team leads never provide proper training and overburden their team in task that are too complicated. There were instances where experts saw that even though the project was late, the team leads put additional stress on their team members, just to show off their authority.

Estimation
The biggest mistake that managers do is the incorrect estimation of workers’ talent and their work experience. Also, most experts feel that managers and team lead often neglect those team members who are productive and have the necessary skills for doing the required job. Many of the managers in order to impress the higher authority initiate budget-cuts without doing a proper analysis.
Some managers go for big tickets and try to solve them rather than spending a small amount of time in resolving smaller issues due to the lack of proper vision. Most importantly, they never check into the estimates, data, etc from the previous project to make the necessary changes in the current project. These so called experienced managers fail to create and develop a plan that covers unknown factors. In addition, they assume that new tools and techniques will improve the whole performance without checking out or doing any kind of research on it.
Planning
It is a common knowledge that planning plays a major role in the execution of a project. Experts feel that the failure of a projects often occurs during the planning stage when a proper plan is not devised, thereby leading to a bad execution of the project. The managers or the planning in-charge never take into account the complexities present in the project.
The lack of incompetency is so great that these managers make their employees to do work under unnecessary pressure. Of course, there are certain managers who proudly boast of productive performance but never take time in analyzing the failures due to the unproductive issues. Lot of these team leaders and managers don’t have the necessary skills in grasping the requirements of customers.
Frankly, it the project manager that is incharge of the planning and he or she is the one that fails to convert the master plan into tiny manageable task for easy completion. Nowadays, the project managers contribute to an increase in schedule suicide which often occurs when they commit their team members to a particular schedule without taking into consideration whether it can be achieved or not.

Decision Making Issues
Various experts declared that the decision making issues are often caused when inexperienced individuals are assigned to take part in critical and important decision, even though they don’t have the subject matter expertise. Also, they never take into account if any of their team members provide expert advice in the decision making. Either they ignore it or never pay heed to it.
Another major issue in the failure of proper decision making which experts feel, is not understanding the situation while making the decision. Some of the project managers end up in delaying in taking decisions for critical situations and they never think of placing closure to any of the important decisions in a proper manner. (Lauermann, 2016).
Vision And Goal
According to Stocia and Brouse 2013, each project has a clear cut vision and this is recorded somewhere. When it comes to making strategic decision making, individuals rarely use it for getting solid guidelines.
Experts declare that Stocia and Brouse, 2013 clearly state that without understanding the necessity of the projects, it should deliver results that are desired as the goal of the organization. Here this would be a huge failure to the whole goal of the organization. The lack of coordination among projects leads to huge internal conflicts of interest among various organizations.
Project Tracking And Management
Experts feel that most of the project managers take into account the budget and schedule as the major force for driving the project. They end up compromising on the quality of the project to gain faster results, irrespective of whether it justifies the efforts or not.
In addition, experts declare that project managers and team lead make the biggest blunder of evaluating and tracking projects using large and visible deliverables and in turn ignoring the small increments in the process. Also, project managers fail to administrate and judge small sub-contractors and vendors on daily basis. Managers assume that team have provided all the required deliverables without doing any revision on them or even checking them.
They feel that team members will remember the various intricate details and do as directed as per the reviews of the previous project. Ultimately, experts clearly feel that this leads to mismanagement as workers often forget on how to work properly.
The main agenda of this research proposal is about evaluating the different factors leading to the failure of the project and examine the effectiveness of the factors on the success of the project. Carefully analyzing the problem or doing a detailed case study on the given problem provides us the best solutions, a way to prove lies and truths, and enhance our knowledge.
There are a number choices of the research methodology and depend on the use of the research study. I have chosen the case study as a methodology of choice and there are many reasons for it. I prefer it because it uses a number of different research methodologies and it can be done remotely. It is inexpensive and accessible to the researcher. Further, the case study method involves simply studying the case and observing what happens to, and assessment of the case history as in our case, Analysis of Causes of Failure in XYZ Project. We have two different case studies are chosen for the research paper. The first case is the project failure of British petroleum. The other case study is based on the Fiat Chrysler Automobiles’ failed project.
On the other side, some hurdles, such as influence factors within data, it takes longer to analyze the data and it can be an inefficient process. The case study method advantage and drawbacks offer a look at the effectiveness of the research topic. As with the right skill set, it can be proven the most effective method in research methodology, and without the right skill set, this method of research seems inaccurate and inefficient.
Ethical considerations play a significant role in each research strategy. they take on the involvement of centrality in an event that concentrates research where researchers work intimately on daily basis with research members over some not defined time frame and as often as possible in the personal mode and up close. Further considering the ethics of studies, the interaction between researchers and participants can be ethically challenging as they are personally involved in different stages of the study. Ethical issues are considered during the formulation of the evaluation plan such as Confidentiality Informed consent, Anonymity, Voluntary participation. Informed consent is participating in the evaluation is fully informed about the evaluation being conducted and aware of the purpose of the projects. As voluntary participation ethics, I have no one with me who helps me as a voluntary participant. In do no harm ethics, sometimes psychological harms such as stress and anxiety can be faced. In confidential issues, I couldn’t find any profound information available.
A little about timeline and budget, it usually depends on the length of the research thesis, this projects are approximately about ten weeks, and there is no specific budget fix yet. I am very interested in the topics and eager to perform research on it, with my deep understanding of the specific topic “Analysis of Causes of Failure in Project” I would do a profound research and show you the better analysis of causes of failure.

References

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Brown, M., 2007. Comptia RFID+ certification. McGraw-Hill/Osborne Media.
Conboy, K., 2010. Project failure en masse: a study of loose budgetary control in ISD projects. European Journal of Information Systems, 19(3), pp.273-287.
Elmquist, M. and Le Masson, P., 2009. The value of a ‘failed’R&D project: an emerging evaluation framework for building innovative capabilities 1. R&d Management, 39(2), pp.136-152.
Gray, R.M., Cook, M.B., Natera, M.T., Inglis, M.M. and Dodge, M.L., 2008. Project Management: The. In Managerial Process”, McGraw-Hill.
Hox, J.J. and Boeije, H.R., 2005. Data collection, primary versus secondary.
Horn, P., Schiele, H. and Werner, W., 2013. The “ugly twins”: Failed low-wage-country sourcing projects and their expensive replacements. Journal of purchasing and supply management, 19(1), pp.27-38.
Kokko, A., Kotoglou, K. and Krohwinkel-Karlsson, A., 2003. The implementation of FDI in Viet Nam: an analysis of the characteristics of failed projects. Transnational corporations, 12(3), pp.41-78.
Kerzner, H., 2014. Project recovery: Case studies and techniques for overcoming project failure. John Wiley & Sons.
Lauermann, J., 2016. Temporary projects, durable outcomes: Urban development through failed Olympic bids? Urban Studies, 53(9), pp.1885-1901.
Maylor, H., 2001. Beyond the Gantt chart: Project management moving on. European management journal, 19(1), pp.92-100.
Reich, B.H. and Wee, S.Y., 2006. Searching for Knowledge in the PMBOK® Guide. Project Management Journal, 37(2), pp.11-26.
Rabianski, J.S., 2003. Primary and secondary data: Concepts, concerns, errors, and issues. The Appraisal Journal, 71(1), p.43.
Roger, V.L., Weston, S.A., Redfield, M.M., Hellermann-Homan, J.P., Killian, J., Yawn, B.P. and Jacobsen, S.J., 2004. Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in a community-based population. Jama, 292(3), pp.344-350.
Stoica, R. and Brouse, P., 2013. IT project failure: A proposed four-phased adaptive multi-method approach. Procedia Computer Science, 16, pp.728-736.
Welsh, I., 2001. Anti-nuclear movements: failed projects or heralds of a direct action milieu?. Sociological Research Online, 6(3), pp.36-50.
Woodford, K.C., Chow, A.F. and Lambe, N., 2014. Using project deliverables and project management for timely completion of student projects. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 5(3), pp.323-329.

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