Sample of history assignment:
Title: The House Negro vs. the Field Negro
In November 1964, Malcolm X ended a tour of Africa, where he had passed through a dozen different states. Instead of returning directly to the United States, he traveled first to Paris and then to the UK. There he took part in a debate at the Oxford Union Society in one of his final public appearances before his murder the following February He spoke with the motion, “extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice; moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue”. He spoke out in favor of black supremacy and advocated the separation of black and white Americans – unlike the civil rights movement, which had placed an emphasis on integration.
‘Anytime you live in a society supposedly based upon the law and it doesn’t enforce its own laws because the color of a man’s skin happens to be wrong, then I say those people are justified to resort to any means necessary to bring about justice when the government can’t give them justice.’(Malcolm X, circa 1963)
This passage is taken from the speech of Malcolm at Oxford in 1963. American civil rights leader Malcolm X was also called Malik el Shabazz is known as a human rights activist. During the civil right, he proved himself the most towering figure by his positive role as he was a spokesman for the Nation of Islam. He made this speech and with this speech, he becomes the king of many people’s hearts. He gets the chance with a unique opportunity to share his thought and express his ideas about what he has developed about politics and racism which he addresses to their distorted image in the U.S and all the Europe.
"House Negro" and the "field Negro."
Malcolm ironically used this statement to describe the history of Negro people. He compares the old Negro with the new Negro further as house Negro and Field Negro. He said most of us know about house Negro, and in the history of slavery he is known as’’ Uncle Tom’’. The old Negro usually lived close to his master. (here master is the symbol of white American).
The house Negro considers his owner to wear his master’s second-hand clothes. he eats the food after his master, especially what the master leaves on tables. Master, only allows him to live in his house's basement.
He has no identity and he’s only identified by his master identity. He follows him well if the master says we have good food, the house Negro follows his statement and says, yes, we have good food. Whenever a master has an issue it does means Negro has a problem such as if the master house accidentally starts burning the old or house Negro effortlessly tries to save his master house. Now meet with New Negro, which should be called in the field Negro and lucky the new Negro was in majority. New Negroes were totally the opposite of old Negro as when master becomes ill, they pray that he would die. And when master's house caught fire they would pray for more wind to come to spread it. (Laughing)
Malcolm X and the civil rights movement.
Malcolm X was considered the most popular figure in the civil rights movement between 1960 to 1965. He was the spokesman of the Islam’ Nation and he had built his own ideas for race and religion. At the time of need for black Americans, he proved himself tremendously significant as an organizer, a religious reformer, an orator, and an inspirational personality for many people. Malcolm had a tragic death as he was assassinated on 21 Feb 1965. But he had done his part even before this date.
Malcolm X’ Objective of extremism and liberty.
Malcolm was born inherently having the objective of racism, radicalism, extremism, and liberty. He has been being remembered because he was the spokesman of Islam’s leading ideological Nation. As related to him a myth is famous that he became a religious preacher after being released from prison. He had numerous meetings with African leaders but his traveling to Mecca, clear out all his previous ideas on racism and domination patterns of whiteness.
Malcolm revealed his belief such as promoting human rights and civics, uncovering the hypocrisy of hegemonic media, and overcoming racialism. He spoke out in favor of black supremacy and advocated the separation of black and white Americans – unlike the civil rights movement, which had placed an emphasis on integration. The theme speech of Malcolm addresses the Black exploitations and illusive U.S democracy. Further, places the reality of historical colonial scenarios such as American imperialism and Belgian colonialism in the South African apartheid.
Winegar, Jessica. (2012). The Privilege of Revolution: Gender, Class, Space and Affect in Egypt. American Ethnologist, 39(1), 67-70.
Woolf, Virginia. (1996). Professions for Women. The Norton Anthology: Literature by Women. Sanda M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar. Ed 2nd. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 13451348.
Zaltsman, Janine. Egypt. Women Under Siege. Women’s Media Center. 8 Feb 2012. Web. 23 November 2013.
Title: Women’s work and men’s wok forty year ago in the UEA
The position of men and women in a society of Emirati has totally developed now, in comparison to 40 years ago. I have come to know through ethnographic traditional research that before 1960, there were few opportunities for work especially for the women of UEA. women were limited to domestic life as housewife. Same as the men were also not a professional businessman as now they are. Before the 40 years,7 they were depending on the subsistence economy as they relied on natural resources such as agriculture, dates, and somewhere business of fish and pearls of the gulf. But after the discovery of oil in 1960, the economy and business of men and women have totally changed.
I have organized this paper with the question and answerer about what type of work was considered “women’s work” and “men’s work” forty years ago in the UEA, through conducting short ethnographic oral history/traditions research by interviewing my old family members.
1. What were the d women’s work before forty years in the UEA?
2 .When I asked the question to my grandmother, I become a little surprised to know that how The roles of women in the Arab world have changed throughout history. . Historically, the culture of women has undergone critical evolution and transformations.
Work as housewife
According to my grandmother, before 40 years, the most essential duty for women was to consider the work of their home. Women’s obligatory work was handling house affairs. As a housewife the most impertinently they do care of their children, and cook food for their member of the house.
The second important work was carrying the same business which their husbands have, such as the forming where freshwater was available and fish selling who lives near the sea.
Caring for the animals
At that time, Most of the villagers had animals for their food and also for selling purposes. So, most of the women feed the animals by bringing the food from the form.
Stitching of cloth
Stitching the clothes for their family members and commercially for others people was considered women’s work. Women were able to earn a good amount of money by this business.
What is the status of women at the present day?
With my own observations and after a little research, I become able to know very interesting facts about women of today. It is figured out in the UNESCO report that 34-57% of STEM grads in Arab countries are women, this figure is interestingly higher than in the universities of the Europe or US.
It is also found out that in the country of UEA, the number of women business owners is growing rapidly. Of course, they are adding to economic development. According to an estimates Arab women have $40 billion as personal wealth. Now women are running all types of business that men run.
What was the “men’s work” forty years ago in the UEA?
I asked this question to my grandfather, he replied “Emirati families produced just what they needed” in the very past, they lead a very sample village life, palm tree dates were used as family food.
Before the discovery of oil, Emirates had similar economies. Emeriti usually do the business of the pearls of the gulf, fish and the meager soil, agriculture, and scarce water onshore. Probably the single largest source of wealth until the 1930s and 1940s were Pearls from the rich banks off the amirates' coast. Same as the agribusiness considered the best income source for men where fresh water was available for farming.
What are the top trending job and business people do in the UEA?
After the arrival of technology and discovery of the oil, the jobs and business status have been totally changed in the UEA. People have left behind the agribusiness and even industries. I have searched out some most trending businesses of the day in UEA such as Advertising: UAE receives a noticeable market share in advertising over the last few years. according to the Smart Dubai 2021campaign, they formalized a goal that UEs should be a smart city that embraces technology, so the work of Information Technology and Web Development is on top.
On the other side there are also some traditionals but a most profitable business which is still carried in the UEA Such as Education and health. Because approximately 85% of the population in Dubai being ex-pats, so there is immense need of institutes especially about language. Same as the healthcare industries are also considered the most top of the earning industry in the UEA as Dubai Healthcare City free zone is specifically directed toward the healthcare industry.
This is how a culture form and society changes their lifestyle. One can see the clear difference between today’s UEA and forty years ago when the discovery of the oil and technology does not arrive. Before 1960, the only settlements were villages and small towns. The discovery of the oil resources brings massive modernization and villages have been converted into commercial capital cities. In the present, we know UEA as the melting spot of multiculturalism with over 200 nationalities. It has become difficult to figure out the bonafide Emirate people Because of overmuch emigration and many communities.
Modern technology has transformed the overall lifestyles of people and structures of the places. Now they have wide roads having, a variety of shopping areas, and a well-structured separated housing area. Emirati traditions were dominant event until a few decades ago, this era was consisting of vast pieces of deserts but after the time of oil discovery, it has changed culturally as well as geographically.
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Social issue: The Treatment of Women in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll's House
This paper investigates “the treatment of women in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll's House (1879). Ibsen is considered one of the greatest supporters of the feminist approach. His almost every literary piece depicts nothing but the right of women. Untrue system of marriage, women fighting for their freedom and stressing the individuality of women which Henrik Ibsen’s has shown in his play “A Doll's House”. The article, entitled “concept of Feminism in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll's House” reflects the light on female subjugation, dilemma, marginalization, psychological trauma, subordination, and the suffrage of women. After analyzing this play profoundly, this essay favored the discussion that Ibsen’s A Doll’s House is based on a feminist perspective focusing on women’s problems.
Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) is a big name among the most significant modern dramatists of the 19th century. He instantly realizes the social problems which were arising because of the women's marginalization in his age. His literary works expose the social, cultural, and psychological conflicts by women in everyday life such as we see in the case of Nora in his play A Doll's House (Mills. 2005). No doubt, he was a great dramatist but he was more famous because of his revolutionary ideas and deep philosophical approaches which leave a profound impact on the development of English literature in general and particularly in drama throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
In this particular drama, Ibsen is emphasized on the problem of women’s position in society as he has portrayed through the character of Nora. So, the main theme in this play is a responsibility to achieve individual rights in society as Nora tried to achieve. “What duties do you mean? Nora: my duties towards myself” (DHIII, 68). Nora, a wife, or a mother, as a woman, is treated like a doll by his husband in the play. This essay will explore Henrik Ibsen's treat of women and the concept of feminism in the doll’s house.
For centuries and even until now the phenomenon of women’s problem and their struggle for their rights still exist in different societies in different forms. History is full of evidence that women have been portrait inferior, and worthless, always are subordinated and discriminated by the man. The man considered superior and ruler and women seemed the only followers in society. It happens because our social system has been trapped in the patriarchal system which is considered the biggest hurdle for women to get the equality. Somewhere, many societies still believe that man is better than women. In short, women face many problems in different aspects of life such as Ibsen has exposed through the character of Nora in his play the A Doll’s House. so, for that concern, we have introduced with feminism which emphasizes the solution of women's problems with their struggles.
The main theme of the drama A Doll's House is based on the issue of women. Ibsen emphasizes women’s status and their treatment in society. Critical appreciation of the text of the play A Doll’s house show that there was a lack of respect and a lack of true love for a wife in nineteenth-century society. In A Doll’s House, we deal with the rigid morality of Helmer husband of the Nora, which depresses the individuality of the woman herself as Nora sacrifices herself thoroughly for his sake (Ritchie, Jane, & Jane . 2003) It seems that she is living in such a society that might be run by masculine laws with no emotions. Nora says “we have never sat down in earnest together to try and get at the bottom of anything” (DHIII, 66). This line is considered one of the key sentences which concern with Feminist approach that expresses Nora’s heart frustration. The character of Nora has been portrayed as a second-hand creature where its basic human right has been ignored. Through this character, Ibsen’ described the system of a patriarchal society that is controlled by men’s rules, which directly approach the concept of feminism.
George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), another prominent literary figure, remarks in the Quintessence of Ibsenism, “The Norwegian Ibsen’s significance takes place because of deep concern social-political discussion (such as feminism) into the drama through the agency of unwomanly woman” (Morris & Pam 1999). Ibsen has consistently presented the social issue “Feminism” in his almost all work such as his famous play “Hedda Gabler” which approaches nothing but feminism. Similarly, in Doll’s House (1879, DH), he introduces us to social problems assigned to women in a male-oriented society.
Few centuries ago, Western countries and North America was considered the male dominating countries. They even have the whole male society in which the household things are also carried by the men they didn’t pay attention to give the right to females. The same situation can be seen in the drama written by Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll's House (1879). HELMER: "Bought, did you say? All these things? Has my little spendthrift been wasting money again?" (1.11). this dialog showed that he is angry and doesn’t even want to give the right to save and spend money. But in the reality, Nora was saving money to return the loan which she took for the treatment of his husband (Neuman & Lawrence. 2007). In reality, the author wants to show the sacrifices of the women and want to give their rights to make them more polished and respectable.
In 1879, when the Norwegian’s female showed their helplessness and bear full condition of not having the power to use money by their own purpose and even they were not allowed to take a loan from the banks and other people without the consents of husbands and guardian, on that era Nora took loan for the treatment of his husband (Moleong. 2010). This statement showed that the women have the power to do anything she wants but she only cannot perform duties due to over authoritative of males in society. So the author focuses on the equal rights of females. By the poor and injustice environment of the Nora helps the author to right the main theme of the drama. Nora also faces another injustice and illegal activity when she is harassed and blackmailed by Krogstad, who wants to use Nora just for his purpose. KROGSTAD: "I shall only preserve it—keep it in my possession. No one who is not concerned in the matter shall have the slightest hint of it." (2.263)This dialogue is showing that Nora is disturbed and Krogstad rather than blackmailing here he wants to gain his seat on the bank and the clarification of his character too (Marzouki, 2008). Due to these poor conditions, women should have equal rights and should be treated equally to be not pressed in the society and by the males anymore.
Larsen and passim quoted that when the play was in writing position, in that period the women of that society have only two types of jobs. One was to produce children and the second was to develop them. Few women had jobs but they were paid very low. The divorce or e rate was high because divorce was easy and cheap but only one aspect was needed which was the agreement of the couple (Gamble, 2006). But in this play, the husband of Nora doesn’t give him the right to divorce so that she doesn’t want to live with him anymore. So, she decided and left him without his consent and permission but society didn’t accept her decision and left her alone. These types of phenomena still exist in our society but the role of feminism should work more on the rights of females to make them more protective and stronger.
Helmer (2017) stated that a marital contract is just a trick and deception. There “'marriage is to stress the aspects of society and personal dishonesty that hinder personal development.” In the play, the husband of Nora just wants authority and didn’t take any responsibility for her. He called her by different bad names which disrespect Nora (p. 81). This type of irresponsibility and dishonesty should be treated at the legal and social level and should be encouraged by feminism by giving them equal rights, which was also the target of the author of the play.
This research paper on Ibsen’s A Doll’s House has examined the approach of Feminism by quoting the views of certain critics along with examples and quotes from the play. On the behalf of above all discussion, one can conclude that there are a significant number of elements in the play that approach the concept of feminism. So, the main subject which Ibsen has portrayed in the play is women’s rights. It moralizes that every woman should find out herself and stand for her individuality to recognize the truth about herself as Nora did at the end of the play. Thus, Ibsen approaches the philosophy that female is equal to men. Females should know their value and worth and should work with the many by holding the same rights, respect, and move in society (Bretons, 1995). Society cannot be satisfied and can maintain properly when their women are disrespected. Finally, after analyzing this play profoundly we can say Ibsen’s A Doll’s House is based on a feminist perspective focusing on women’s problems.
Halmar (2017) feminism in generic ibsen’s a dolls' house: the University of Diyala, Number extension 221– volume one - 2017 AD, 1438 AH
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